Saturday, September 11, 2010


            Sociology is a branch of social sciences.It is consid1ered as a separate discipline.It is also known asbrsnch of knowledge because it has own unit characters.It is different from other sciences in certain respect.
         We already mentioned that  sociology is a science.Science is  one of the  most important component of the modern world..It refers to the body of systamatically arranged knowledge.The advanced Learner's dictionary define science as"The knowledge arranged in orderly manner,especially knowledge obtained by observation and testing a facts.
          It is commanly believed that science is mainly concerned with nature and the social aspect ot science is often overloop.Therefore,broadly speaking, science can be divided into two branches.:
              1)Natural and physical science:It is the branch of science which deals with physical or naturals objects such as soil,climate,rock,organism e.t.c.Natural scientist can conduct experiment in order to aquire knowledge and verify the facts.It is further divided into following branches:
  •   Physics 
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Mathematics 
  • Geology
  • Astronomy,e.t.c
             2)Social science:It is the branch of  science which deals social aspects of the society and human being.It means that it is the study of social life of people.Compare to natural science,it is hard to apply the knowledge in practical uses because the social phenomena are in abstract form.The social scientist try to explain social phenomena by using scientific tools and technique.Social science is also further divided into several branches.Some of them are as follows:
  • Geography
  • History
  • Psychology
  • indian cockfighting culture 
  • Political science
  • Sociology 
  • Anthropology
  • Culture e.t.c
                      There is a controversy about the nature of sociology as a science.One group claim that sociology is as much a science as other sciences but some  other scholars accept sociology to be a science because they claim that it lacks experimentation and predictions.For them the term science should only use for physical sciences where there is experimentation and prediction.In this science,sociology is not a science because it's subject matter such as social relationship,society,social life,human behaviour in group are not easily seen from microscope  and they are not observational also.According to Vidya Bhusan and Sachdeva,the main reasons given by the  critics who deny sociology to be regarded as a science are as follows:
1)Lack of experimentation:The term science as used for physical sciences includes the two process of experiment and prediction .Sociology in this sence ,is not a science because the subject matter of sociology,for examples ,human behaviour,their relationship.their norms and values ,costumes e.t.c cannot experiment directly in a lab by man.But these subject matter of sociology are experimented using different scientifc methods and techniques such as questionaires,surveys,case-study and e.t.c
2)Lack of objectivity:In sociology one cannot maintain complete objectivity with the object of his\her experiment as done a physicist.It is not possible for a man to observe his own prejudice and biased nature.Thus social relationship cannot be studid through physical sences.What we see in social relationship is only and outward expression of our inner life.
3)Lack of exactness:One of teh main important characterstics of science is that it should be able to frame certain laws on the basics of observation and hypothesis and such laws should also enable us to predict accurately .Sociology cannot be expressed in precise terms and it's prediction might not come true.It is difficult ot make predictions about human behaviours.
4)Observations:sociologist can observe the  social phenomena and make conclusion in the area of role,status ,co-operation e.t.c.Though they are all abstract terms,we can observe them indirectly.
5)Comparision:It is impossible to experiment sociology in  a lab but sociologist used comparative method for the study of various kind of group of people in order to find out their similariries and dissimilaritiesin their ways of life.
6)Cause and effect relationship:Like in any scientific process,sociology also looks into cause and efffect relationship.For examples,the use of family planing devices is result of law population growth.
              Similarly,Robert Bierstedt has put forward the following points in order to clarify the  nature of sociology as a scientific study of  social phenomena.
  • Sociology is a social science not a natural science
  • Sociology is a catagorical or positive science and  normative science.
  • It is pure or theoritical science.
  • It is abstract science not a concrete science.
  • It is generalizing and not particularising science.
  • It is both rational and an imperical science.


             Sociology and economics are the branches of the social sciences .They have very close relationship.Economics deals with the economics activities of man which is also called science of bred and butter.Economics is the study of production,distribution and consumption of goods and services.Economics es concerned with material welfare of the human beings.Economics welfare is only a part of himan welfare and it can be only sought only with the proper knowledgeof social laws.It cannot go far ahead without the help of sociology and other sciences.
             Sociology and economics are helpful to eachother.Economocs relationship are closely related with social activities as same as social relationship are also effected by economic activity.
Carl Heinrich Marx
            Thus due to such relations ,Thomas regarded economics as the branch of sociology which is known as economic sociology and is use to studyeconomic process of the society.Some economist like Sam Bart,Max Weber,Pareto have explained economic change as aspect of social change.According to them,the study of economics would be incomplete without understanding of human society.The  society,it's structure,organization,it's institution,it's strength and witness e.t.c are bound to effect economics activitiesof it's people.On the other hand,according to Karl Marx,the social phenomenas are determined by economic forces .And social reality or social change can be explained in terms of economic forces.
         According to Karl Marx,the infrastructure of society is nothing but the economic relations among it's people are something.
The oldest turtle cion,dates 700 B.C
        Now the area of co-operation between sociology and economics is becoming wider.Economist are now analyzing the social factors influencing economic growth.Economist are now more and more making use of the sociological concept and generalizations in the study of economics problems.Besides there are certain social economic problems of greater importance to be studid by both economist and sociologist.The problem like poverty,unemployment,over population e.t.c have both social and economic implications.


     Inspite of interdependence of those two sciences,they are quite distinct from eachother .The main differences between them are given below.
  • Sociology studies all kind of social relationship whereas economics deals with only those social relationships  which are economic in character.
  • Sociology is a general science but economics is special science.
  • The scope of sociology is wider and has comprehensive view points,the scope of economics is narrow.
  • Sociology is abstract in nature and social variables are very difficult to measures and to quantity.Economics is concrete in nature and it's variable can be measured and quantified mare easily and accurately.


Friday, September 10, 2010


Morris Ginsberg
                 Political science and  sociology are closely related .Political science is that branch of social science which mostely deals with state,government and power.According to Morris Ginsberg ,"Historically sociology has it's main rules in politics and philosophy of history."
    Political science deals with the political activities of man .It deals with the principles of  organization and government of human society.It studies social groups organized under the sovereignty of the state.
    It is said that without the sociological background the study of political science will be complete.The forms of government ,the nature of govermental organs,the laws and sphere of the state activities are determined by the social process.Both the sciences are mutually helpful  since political activities is only a part of the social activities.
Niccolo Machiavell,one of the
 influential political theories
     Political activity influences and is influences by the social life of the man.Politics is after all the reflection of the society.Political science gives the fact about the organization and function of state of government.Similarly political science is derrived from a knowledge of the origin of the political authority.As political science is concern with the state,sociology also studies state  as one of the human association.The state in it's early form was more a social institution that of original one.
        Without sociological background,the study of political  science will be incomplete.But also sociology depend on pol;itical science for its conclusion.The special study of political life of the society is very important for the complete study of the society as a whole.
  • Sociology is the science of society whereas political science is the science of state and government.
  • Sociology studies all kinds of society organized and unorganized while political science studies politically organized society.
  • The scope of sociology is found wider than scope of political science.
  • Sociology studies man as fundamentally a social animal whereas political science studies man as a political animal.
  • Sociology is the general science and is relatively younger but politocal science is special and is older than sociology.
  • The approach of sociology is different then that of political science.
Despite the similarities and dissimilarities between two discipline sociology and political science,they have close ralationship.Political sociology thus become popular in the modern period.


Psycologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 posited the human have a hierarchy of
needs and it makes sense to fulfill the basic need first like air,water e.t.c before
higher order need can be met.
          Psychology is the science of  mental process or mind.It studies particularly teh human experiences and the behaviour.Social psychology  os one of the subdivisions of sociology,which is the combinations of psychology and sociology.Sociology and psychology are both involved in solvimg the exist social problems.Sociology helps psychology and psycology helps sociology.Thus,they are interelated in many respects .Besides social psychology studies individuals social behaviour.Social psychology serves the bridge between psychology and sociology.It deals with mental process of man considering him as a social bieng.
               Humanistic psychology was developed in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis.By using phenomenology, intersubjectivity and first-person categories, the humanistic approach sought to glimpse the whole person not just the fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive functioning.Humanism focused on fundamentally and uniquely human issues, such as individual free will, personal growth, self-actualization, self-identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and meaning. The humanistic approach was distinguished by its emphasis on subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for positive growth rather than pathology.[citation needed] Some of the founders of the humanistic school of thought were American psychologists Abraham Maslow, who formulated a hierarchy of human needs, and Carl Rogers, who created and developed client-centered therapy. Later, positive psychology opened up humanistic themes to scientific modes of exploration.

    Social psychology studies the nature and causes of
    social  behaviour
  • Sociology studies the individuals and psychology studies the personality
  • Psychology is often defined as the science of mental process whereas sociology is the science of society.
  • Sociology is general study while psychology is focused in particular studies of man ,mental activities and his basic behaviour.The main differences lies in the approaches of the two sciences.Sociology consider many factors responsible for human behaviour while psychology  likes to investigate  those mental and psychological facts in an action that have caused it. 

Thursday, September 9, 2010


The title page to"The historians history of the world"
        Sociology and history are much interelated with eachother.History is the branch of the social science which deals with the records of past events.Historical sociology is the discipline which is concern with the studyu of socila phenomena,social process and so forth in the past.It is also called social history.   
          Sociology is the study of society while history seeks to establish the squence in which events occurs in the past .Like historian sociologist are concerns  with the relationship between events occuring more or  less at the same time .In this context,history suplies the material for sociologu as well as sociology gives the social background for the study of historrry.It is further said that history would be meaningless without explaining sociallly significiant events.
          Sociologist are most intrested in teh contemporary events  and recent past which is also related with history.Thus, their mitual dependance upon eachother has lead G.E Howard to remarks that"history is the past of sociology and sociology is the present history."
A depection of the ancient library of Alexandria
          Peter Worsley says that "The best history is infact sociology, or sociology of the past."
                                 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOCIOLOGY AND HISTORY
              Despite the similarities,there are some differences between sociology and history which are as follows:
  • Sociology studies mainly contemporary  events or resent past while history studies the past events.
  • History is concrete and sociology is abstract.According to Park,"History is the concrete while sociology is the abstract science of human experiences and human nature."
         Sociologist are intrested to find the general laws of this society where as the historians are intrested to narrate this historical events in their cronical oder.This sociologist would try to find out the common aspects of the events recorded by the historians.

  • Sociology and history has different attitude.History has different attitude.History would deal events in all their aspects while sociology would study them  from the view points of social relationship involved.
  • Sociology is the generalizing science.It seeks to establish generalization after a careful study of social phenomena.History on other hand is an individualizing science.It seeks to establish the sequence in which events occur.
  • The scope of sociology is wide while that of history is narrow.
  • Sociology is capable of indicating future,while history only gives the actual account of the past. 



           Social sciences basically study human groups,society and social environment.The social sciences such as, history,anthropology,physiology,economice,political science e.t.c studies the diferent aspects of the sociology of man.Theses social sciences are very much interelated .Sociology as a science of societyhas joined the family of social science very recently.It becomes very necessary to a student of sociology to know teh differences and the relations of the sociology with other sciences.However the study of the differences and similarities of sociology with other sciences has become very diffucult and also has been a matter of controversy.
           Today ,indisciplinary approach is gaining popularity in the field of social science.To understand,one social science one needs the understanding ot others.Similarly,sociology has borrowed many things from other sciences and at the same times,enrich other sciences by it's useful sociological knowledge.In this context ,it becomes assentila to know the interelation between sociologyb and history ,economics,political,anthropology ,social physcology,education e.t.c

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Importance of Sociology(Uses of sociology)

     The study of sociology has a great value especially in modern complex society.Some of  the uses of sociology are as follows:
Peruvian indigenous people,learning to
read(it shows development of this community)
        1) Sociology studies society in  a scientific way:Sociology  studies in a scientific manner.The scientific  knowledge is very much needed in human society in order to achieve progress in various field.
       2)Sociology focuses on the social nature of man:Sociology focuses into the social nature of man.By these,we know that man is a social animal.Through sociology we get the answers of why man lives in group,community and society.It examines the relationship between indivudals and society and the impact of sociology on man.
        3)Sociology studies the role of  the institution in the devlepment of the individuals :Through sociology ,that scientific study of the  great social institutions and the relations of the individuals to each is being made.Sociology reads these institution and their role in the development of their individuals and suggest suitable measures from re-streangthing  them with a view to enable them to serve the individuals better.
         4)Sociology improves our understanding of society and increases the power of social actions:The science of society assists an individual to understand itself,his capacities,talents and limitations .Knowledge of society ,social groups,social institution,associations ,their functions e.t.c.helps us to lead an effective social life.
         5)Sociology plays an important role in the  solutions of social problems :The present social problems opf teh world can be solved only through scientific study of society,that is through sociology where different scientific method and research are used to find out the solutions for them.
          6)The study of  sociology helps us to know not only our society and man but also  others,their motives,aspirations ,status ,occupations,traditions,costumes,institutions e.t.c.:In a large industrial society,we need to have some insight into an appreciations of the motives by which others live and the conditions under which they exist.Such an insite is derived from the study of sociology.
  • Sociology is useful as teaching subject.
  • The study of sociology is indispensible for understanding and planning of society.
  • Sociology is of great importance in the  solutions of  international problems.
  • Brazilian indigenous chiefs of the kayapo tribe
  • The practical utility of sociological techniques such as social surveys and so on.
  • Sociology is of great practical help in the sence that it keeps us up to date on modern social situations and development.  
  •  Study of sociology has help several governments to promote the wellfare of the trival people.