We already mentioned that sociology is a science.Science is one of the most important component of the modern world..It refers to the body of systamatically arranged knowledge.The advanced Learner's dictionary define science as"The knowledge arranged in orderly manner,especially knowledge obtained by observation and testing a facts.
It is commanly believed that science is mainly concerned with nature and the social aspect ot science is often overloop.Therefore,broadly speaking, science can be divided into two branches.:
1)Natural and physical science:It is the branch of science which deals with physical or naturals objects such as soil,climate,rock,organism e.t.c.Natural scientist can conduct experiment in order to aquire knowledge and verify the facts.It is further divided into following branches:
- Political science
- Culture e.t.c
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1)Lack of experimentation:The term science as used for physical sciences includes the two process of experiment and prediction .Sociology in this sence ,is not a science because the subject matter of sociology,for examples ,human behaviour,their relationship.their norms and values ,costumes e.t.c cannot experiment directly in a lab by man.But these subject matter of sociology are experimented using different scientifc methods and techniques such as questionaires,surveys,case-study and e.t.c
2)Lack of objectivity:In sociology one cannot maintain complete objectivity with the object of his\her experiment as done a physicist.It is not possible for a man to observe his own prejudice and biased nature.Thus social relationship cannot be studid through physical sences.What we see in social relationship is only and outward expression of our inner life.
3)Lack of exactness:One of teh main important characterstics of science is that it should be able to frame certain laws on the basics of observation and hypothesis and such laws should also enable us to predict accurately .Sociology cannot be expressed in precise terms and it's prediction might not come true.It is difficult ot make predictions about human behaviours.
4)Observations:sociologist can observe the social phenomena and make conclusion in the area of role,status ,co-operation e.t.c.Though they are all abstract terms,we can observe them indirectly.
5)Comparision:It is impossible to experiment sociology in a lab but sociologist used comparative method for the study of various kind of group of people in order to find out their similariries and dissimilaritiesin their ways of life.
6)Cause and effect relationship:Like in any scientific process,sociology also looks into cause and efffect relationship.For examples,the use of family planing devices is result of law population growth.
Similarly,Robert Bierstedt has put forward the following points in order to clarify the nature of sociology as a scientific study of social phenomena.
- Sociology is a social science not a natural science
- Sociology is a catagorical or positive science and normative science.
- It is pure or theoritical science.
- It is abstract science not a concrete science.
- It is generalizing and not particularising science.
- It is both rational and an imperical science.